Essentails and Collaborations- Governemtal/Non-govermental Assissitance

The Process of Restoration

What to beware and the process of restoration

Materials of Monument Restoration

Traditional Materials vs Modern Materials

Discoveries about Material Selection

Control of Unqualified Materials and Equipment

Problem Prevention and Safety Considerations

The Process of Restroration

            Similar to any project, without external assistance and guidance, monument restoration can’t be carried out smoothly. From the revival division to government agencies, departments needs to cooperate together to complete this difficult task. However, when people are researching on monument, they often only pay attention on the glorious appearance of the monuments or exquisite skills of the monument restorers, but they often forget the hard work of those departments that are also responsible for this task.


          Due to the fact that there is a wide range of monuments that need to be repaired, monument restorers need a great deal of technological and technical support. Therefore, we hope present of process of monument restoration, related precautions of reconstruction projects, and also the latest research and development on monument restoration. Thus, people will understand deeper about monument revival and realize the true meaning of monument restoration.

Team students and teachers went to Shi-Zai-Tou Mountain Trail to survey

Team students and teachers went to Shi-Zai-Tou Mountain Trail to survey

What to beware and the process of restoration

Professional monument restorers need to be responsible when restoring monuments. They have to be responsible because they had to try their best to restore the heritage of ancient people and contribute to the society or country. Therefore, before the plan of monument restoration starts, professionals of monument restoration and other departments will assign works. This could make the process of restore monuments more effective and efficient. In addition, after numerous restorations, people developed a unified procedure of monument restoration to maximize efficiency, thus leading to a more enjoyable experience.

Job distribution during monument restoration

Appointment Owner Management Committee Commissioned Expert Professional Manufacturers City/County Government Committee of Experts Ministry of Interior (R.O.C)
Report Monuments Propose Examine
Announcement Announce Review
Commissioned research restore plan Commissioned In request (Commissioned)
Examine(N:Back to the previous step;Y: Go on to the next step) Convene Propose (Convene) Examine Review
Commissioned design supervision Commissioned In request (Commissioned)
Examine(N:Back to the previous step; Y: Go on to the next step) Propose (Convene) Examine Review
Contract construction(Work report) Convene Contract Review
Change design Commissioned Propose
Examine(N:Back to the previous step;Y:Go on to the next step) convene Propose (Convene) Examine Review
Complete Preliminary inspection Preliminary inspection Reivew Review

Procedure of Monument Resotration

          Before the program of monuments revival, professional monument restoration need to choose building material with lots of considerations. When restoring variety of monuments under different condition, professional of monument restoration need to apply different method. Some professional of monument restoration will use original building material and others will use new material to improve the monument. When restoring, these two method have their advantages, every professional of monument restoration will choose the materials they believe which is better.

Materials of Monument Restoration

          According to Article 46 of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in Taiwan, materials of monument restoration should be the same or similar to its original ones. Since all materials are managed by Construction Inspection Unit, construction inspectors usually ask the responsible companies for mill certificates, inspection documents, and experiment reports of the materials, using them to do sampling inspection. After getting the permission from the Construction Inspections Unit, companies than can purchase the materials needed for the restoration process. To prevent materials below the standard from being accidentally used, they are immediately transferred outside of the site.

Tranditional Materials vs Modern Materials

          Before the profession of monument restoration became well-known, companies used traditional working methods and materials and hired skilled workers to complete the process. However, under the influence of time and technology, several problems emerged. Modern materials and equipments slowly replaced the old ones, because they are easier, quicker, and more convenient. This caused the quality of the monuments to drop radically. In recent years, many semi finished products from China are widely used, further worsening the condition. One of the constraint of restoration quality is that bricks, stones, lime, wood, and pigment are lack of scientific inspection standards. Even though the Council for Cultural Affairs in Taiwan once advocated for the investigation of traditional equipment and manufacture of bricks in 1989, due to practical constraint and the lack of governmental support, this research remained incomplete.

From the restored bricks at the Ximen Red House, one can see that the materials, construction methods, and sizes differ. This shows the different restoration projects that have taken place at the site.

The plaque of the Chen Clan Ancestral Hall built during the Qing Dynasty is being recolored and repaired as its original appearance.

The roof of the Chen Clan Ancestral Hall is being duplicated by clay sculpturing.

The obsolete pillar of the Chen Clan Ancestral Hall is duplicated in its original dimensions. The reconstructed pillar was later connected to the monument by following the construction method of the antecedent builders of the monument.

Discoveries about Material Selection



Because of its low malleability and viscosity, Guan-zi-ling lime is not suitable for surface plastering. On the other hand, shell lime is suitable for surface plastering for its high malleability and viscosity.

Marble lime and Guan-zi-ling lime’s resistance to pressure is low.

Since the percentage of sand in coral stones is relatively high, the addition of sand should be suitable.

The lime collected in the Guan-zi-ling Pillow Mountain has high percentage of MgO, and its quality is similar to shell lime.


Construction Techniques:


Before being used for construction purposes, lime should be filtered to eliminate anything that influences its purity and quality.

If not used, lime should be properly stored in order to prevent hydration reaction.

Even though traditional lime material is very important, the quality of the construction still depends on many other points. Therefore, the most important thing is how to implement the project.

The copper roofs and eaves of the Taipei Women’s Federation building are being reconstructed.

During restoration, the Ximen Red House is supported by structural steelwork.

The copper roofs and eaves of the Taipei Women’s Federation building are being reconstructed.

Proposal of a Plan (undertanding of companies’ operations and requirements)

Delivery of Information (related test reports, related material criterion, and samples)

Examination of the Management of Materials and Equipments (time of preparation, test, and purchasement)

Approval of the Inspection Unit

Arrival of Materials and Equipments (separation between the checked and the unchecked)

Stipulation of Inspection Time

Management of Materials and Equipments (standard, time, methods, and frequency of inspection)

Treatment of Unquailified Materials and Equipments

Control of unqualified materials and equipment
  1. Follow the equipment inspection procedures. Review if there are failed sampling test results, and storage methods (qualified, nonconforming products should be stored in the field segment).
  2. Control substandard materials. Quality control personnel should track and control nonconforming materials.
  3. Control the materials and equipments that are unqualified, and place things in a safe place.

Material and equipment inspection procedures

Review unqualified or sampling test results unqualified materials

Qualified and unqualified building materials are stored at the site

Problem prevention and safety considerations
  • Basic rules for safety
    • Land consolidation
      • Always keep the channel open
      • Material should be classified and safely stacked.
      • Be careful and make sure floor is covered or enclosed.
      • Clean the rubbish as soon as possible.
      • Set up adequate lighting
      • Familiar with the location of fire extinguishing equipment and steps when using it.
    • Safety precautions
      • Ensure that the dangerous parts of the machine has been installed on the shroud before operating the machine
      • Avoid moving in dark, because some dangerous places may not be separated with fence
      • Before using any electrical device or tool, check if wire is damaged.
      • Avoid dragging the wires on the ground or touch water
      • Use electronic tools that was equipped with a leakage circuit breaker
      • Be careful when using chemical substances
    • Personal safety
      • Always wear protective device
      • Do not drink or take drugs at work
      • Pay attention to personal health
      • Do not play on the site
      • If saw any unsafe situation, report it to superiors immediately

Representative members went to the Ximen Red House for an on-site inspection.

  • Unexpected emergency response
    • Be aware of their own working environment and the instructions of the superior. If an emergency occurs and people had to evacuate, keep calm and understand:
      • What is the dangerous condition as indicated by the alarm signal
      • The route to evacuate
      • Follow the company's pre-selected safe location
    • If you find someone seriously injured, you should:
      • Keep calm
      • Ask others for help
      • Accompany the injured
      • Assist in immediate rescue as much as possible
      • Call site security personnel
      • If not neccacary, do not try to move the injured person
      • Do not disturb the accident until the investigator arrives
    • If a fire occurs, keep in mind:
      • A small fire can be extinguished with a fire extinguisher
      • If the fire is not controlled, call the Fire Services Department immediately
    • Emergency telephone number:
      • Always pay attention to the emergency telephone number posted in the office

No.800, Huacheng Rd., Xindian Dist.,

New Taipei City 231, Taiwan