In the 15th and 16th century, Dutch used to be the oceanic power. To develop eastern trade, they planned to monopolize the pacific areas. They firstly tried to take over the Luzon Island but were defeated by Spain. They also tried to attack Macau but were finally defeated by the Portugal. During its retreating trip, in 1603, they occupied Penghu. From then on, Dutch used weaponry force to occupy the outskirts around Taiwan but they were finally expelled by the millitary of Ming Dynasty. In 1622, Dutch forces including 17 warships restarted their landing attacks from the Hongmuchen nearby Magong and established cannon forts. After knowing this message, the Ming government sent Nan, Ju-Yi, a Fukien inspecting Official, led marine forces to fight against Dutch. However, Dutch forces adopted the strategies of looking one way and rowing another to disturb Fukien seashore areas. To solve the trouble, the Ming government entered a treaty with Dutch with detailed as below:
1. The Ming government permitted Dutch to trade with Chinese.
2. Dutch retreated from Penghu and Taiwan was allowed for Dutch occupation.
This treaty is just like a cow from China to trade with a sheep from Dutch. In 1624, Dutch sent 2 warships leaving from Penghu for Luermen on October 15 and landing on Anping. Also, the Zeelandia Castle (Anping Castle) was established for economic and military purposes to serve as the eastern base for trading.The main purpose for Dutch to occupy Taiwan was meant to monopolize the external trading business in Taiwan. Military facilities were exactly the means to reach trading activities. Thereafter, Dutch tried to treat Taiwan as a colony directly under the control of Dutch. Thus, they started to implement overall construction and settlement.
In Taiwan, before Dutch occupation, the trading business in Dagou was imposed without any tax. After Dutch entry, they started to impose 10-1 taxation (Farmers should pay 10kg rice as tax to Dutch whenever there was 100kg rice harvested.) In addition, the Pinpu tribal people were imposed with capita tax (Disregarding all ages, everyone should pay a piece of deer fur as tax payment.) At this moment, Dutch had already settled the northwestern suburban sides of this city. There were protection fences established and soldiers are posted. It was exactly the first time that the area was settled by western foreigners.
Soon after Dutch governance, both fishing and trading were prosperous in Dagou and the western seashore was the major place for ship docking. In addition, due to busy marine transportation activities, lime, rattan, timber, fish and rice yielded in Taiwan were exported from this place and it was the major harbor for export.
After Dutch's monopolized trade, they followed to make Taiwan as an eternal colony. Therefore, they used both religion and settlement to invade Taiwan. After decades, Dutch's religion strategies were only effective to Penpu tribes but showed no effect on Chinese people no matter by means of threatening or luring. Chinese people still insisted on their own religious faith. It was mainly because Dutch translated Bible into mountain tribal languages. As such, Dutch tried to take the advantage from the antagonism between tribal people and Chinese people. On the other hand, there were 121 oxen imported from India. However, Penpu tribal people could not use oxen for farming and there were few Chinese people at that time. Dutch tried to recruit some Chinese people from Fukien and Kuangtong for farming settlement. Also, the Chinese people were provided with farming oxen and utilities. As such, there were lots of poor Chinese people immigrating in Taiwan. Till 1650, the number of Fukien and Kuangtong immigrants had exceeded 100 thousand and the number of Chinese in Taiwan also dramatically increased.
The Holo people moved to Taiwan earlier, so they occupied most western areas in Taiwan. Among them, Chungzho people came to Taiwan earlier than Zhangzhou people. Thus, Zhangzhou people lived nearby seashore and harbors and made their living by fishing or fishing and farming together. Zhangzhou people lived nearby inlands and most of them made a living by farming. Thereafter, Hakka people came to Taiwan later and all the plains were almost occupied by Holo people. Thus, they lived nearby mountains and hills. They made a living by planting tees and tobacco on hills. Fuzhou people came to Taiwan the last, so they just made a living by cooking, barbering and tailoring. Thus, during the earlier period after Taiwan restoration, Chuangzhou people amounted to the highest number and Zhangzhou people were the second largest group. Hakka people were the third largest people. However, Fuzhou people were quite few when compared with the three groupsmentioned earlier. These pioneering people left Xiamen in Fukien and Haichen in Kuangtong for Taiwan and registered the history with their blood and sweat.