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Mackerel's Hometown Nan-Fang-Ao

Mackerel Preservation


    Due to the advantageous geographic location of Taiwan, (East longitude 120-112, north latitude 22-25), “Tropic of Cancer” passes through Hualien and Chiayi. It is situated in the subtropics that receive sufficient sunlight, and terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals grow all year long. Taiwan sits on the largest Eurasian Plate and contact the Pacific Ocean. This creates a monsoon climate in Taiwan. The NE Monsoon in the winter and SW Monsoon in the summer causes swells, which in turn causes mixing of deep seawater nutrient salts that ascend to the water surface. Taiwan is located at the divergent area formed as a result of Philippine ocean crustal plate and Eurasia plate compression. It forms complex ocean bottom topographies in the eastern seas of Taiwan. Moreover, Kuroshio Current (one of the most significant sea currents in the world) of elevated temperature and high nutrient salt content is in close vicinity to the eastern part of Taiwan and flows to the north (high primary productivity as results of terrestrial humidity, warmth, and sunlight supply). The astonishing force of ocean energy in nature is an important passageway for planktons in the ocean. It also supplies food sources for other organisms. Due to effects of the ocean bottom terrain and East China Sea Shelf, Swells are formed 200 meters along the Yilan seawaters, and the northeast seawaters of Taiwan all the way to Fishing Islands. Consequently, the exceptionally high plankton density makes it a significant fishing ground. The ocean ecology is also diversified.


Sea area near Taiwan

     Taiwan waters receive sufficient sunlight all year long.(7000∼15000Lux), The temperature is optimum (20℃ on average )with strong sea currents. The tides and sea currents are relatively stable near the shore inside the bay. Waves, and swells are complex but dissolved oxygen in water is plentiful. In addition, the seawater quality is ideal for fishes from the north to survive in the winter. Fishes from the south also migrate to these waters to avoid the summer heat. There is a variety of fish types, abundant land nutrient salts, and organic movements. Rich nutrient salts are found along the coast and swell areas. It has high primary productivity; high plankton density, and ideal ecological factors. Therefore, aquatic organisms display great disparities and are large in number. The Taiwan waters are known to have world-class ocean ecologies. Based on:
1. Biodiversity protection: coral reefs and cluster groups are ocean rainforests with active ecologies and high disparity levels.
2. High productivity: most organisms along the coast are under the protection of coral reefs.
3. Coral reefs in Taiwan are subject to contamination from waste soils in lands, and pollutants.


Sea Problems in Yi-Lan

    Yilan County Environmental Protection Union strongly criticized the ocean bottom ecologies within the county for they had not been appreciated. The ocean bottom is now nothing but a large garbage dump where coral reefs and ocean resources have been subject to serious destructions. The county government raised the wick to formulate short and term long-term strategies. The short-term strategies include immediate beach coastal cleanup, sea surface cleanup, and sea bottom cleanup while the long-term strategies include stationary coral monitoring, and ecological observation. For years, Yilan County Environmental Protection Union and Diving Association have collaborated in conducting investigation and video filming on oceanic resources along the coast. To their surprise, it was found that the seawaters along Su-Ao, Dong-Ao, and Nan-Ao were seriously contaminated. The coral reefs faced catastrophic threats of dying. Take Tofu Bay Scenic Area of Nan-Fang-Ao for instance, the pure and beautiful seawaters are treated as a garbage dump by tourists and fishers. Coral reefs are often covered by plastic bags or clothing that caused their deaths. To Yilan County, a county that claims to be an “Environmental Protection Oriented County”, there is much irony. Coach Chu Yung-Sheng of Yilan County Diving Association expressed that the best dwelling place for the colorful coral reefs is at about 10-15 meters in the outer sea. However, due to collection by man, and waste water contamination, few coral reefs remain. In addition, coral reefs in Dong-Ao are adversely affected by harbor sludge in the vicinity, and are now hung by a thread. If coral reefs are wiped out completely, tropical fishes will not be able to survive on their own.


Sea Protection

    The County Agriculture Bureau and Environmental Protection Bureau held an emergency meeting 2 nights ago and concluded the following: short-term strategies include coral cleanup. Environmental Protection Bureau should propose a Coastal Cleanup Plan for all seawaters of the county within 1 week in which an immediate coastal post-typhoon cleanup should be conducted in order to prevent garbage sinking into the sea bottom. Sea cleaning is carried out by Agriculture Bureau. The sea cleaning of Fishery Conservation Zone within jurisdiction, artificial reef sites, and coral habitats are to be done and completed by the end of June.
Environmental Protection Bureau should campaign and enforce laws regarding tourist and fisher littering. Fishing net disposal is assisted by Agriculture Bureau and Fishing Association. The problem of illegal coral collection by fishermen will be handled by County Police Station by strengthening fishing port security checks. Violators are dealt with accordingly. In the event that Fisheries Act is violated, the case will be forwarded to Agriculture Bureau.


Sea Cradling

     Long-term strategies include stationery coral monitoring which is adopted to observe long-term ecological changes. Meanwhile, county legislators are asked to propose and review Ocean Contamination Prevention Act to rectify duties and responsibilities. Agriculture Bureau and Environmental Protection Bureau should fund accordingly to administrative systems they fall under. Scholars and experts are appointed to conduct Yilan sea coral distribution investigations and conservations. In view of possible effects of “Heping Industrial Port Sea Dumping Debris Drifting” on coral habitats, Environmental Protection Bureau collected data related to environmental effects. The county government in turn passed such data to scholastic departments for effect evaluation.

1. International Ocean Conservation Act
  In the past, people believed the ocean to be “terra nullius”, and therefore ownerless to exploit ocean resources without limit. By mid-20th century, the ocean gradually became exhausted and the concept of “ocean liberty” became accepted. People then realized the ocean is supposed to be “terra communis”, and therefore it is a property shard by the entire mankind. It requires appropriate protection and management by nations. Therefore, “International Ocean Act” was setup. It differs from general national acts as it cannot be enforced in every country. Generally speaking, it seeks the support and recognition of different nations through Convention signing. Nevertheless, consensus and co-management of ocean conservation works are rather important for the world, so, it was listed pending discussion.

2. Convention on the Law of the Sea
   “Convention on the Law of the sea” was passed in 1982. After 10 years of study and discussion, it was completed. Otherwise known as “Ocean Penal Code”, 132 countries have approved or added this convention. It is a big step for the setup of a comprehensive management system. Section 12 of “Ocean Environment Protection and Integrity Preservation” clearly states that although nations reserve the right to develop their natural resources, they are also responsible for ocean environment protection and integrity preservation. The importance of global/regional collaboration, information and technique exchange is also emphasized. Section 12 specifies the restoration of ocean environments subject to destruction and future conservation works.

3. Agenda 21
   “Agenda 21” is one of the fruitful results of World Summit held in 1992. It reviews the ecological impacts of excessive exploitations on the environment over the past centuries. In order to conserve environmental resources, several strategies have been proposed. Among which, chapter 17 includes discussions on six ocean protection and sustainable utilization contents including: 1. comprehensive coastal area management and sustainable developments; 2. ocean environment protection; 3. sustainable utilization and conservation of high sea resources; 4. ocean environment, and climatic change uncertainty studies; 5. International and regional collaborative coordination; and 6. sustainable developments of islets. Member nations ought to improve and maintain the ocean environment shared by all with these six contents as guidelines.

4. Convention of Biological Diversity
   In 1992, the first summit was held in Rio De Janeiro. In order to protect endangered species and the ecosystem, maintain biological diversity on earth, and ensure continual use of natural resources, leaders of over 100 nations passed “Convention of Biological Diversity.” This convention takes justice and responsibility-sharing principles into consideration. It points out that there should be interchange and collaboration among nations including technological collaboration, capital, genetic resource, and ecological technology transfer to ensure fair distribution of genetic resources. Convention of Biological Diversity is an international act that specifies duties and responsibilities related to biologically versatile technological collaboration. It serves as milestone for international acts, international relations, and environmental protection campaigns in recent years.

5. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention)
   “Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat” was setup in 1971. It acknowledges interdependence between man and his environment. It includes basic ecological functions of wetlands such as water system regulation, and water cleaning. It is an important habitat for special plant and animal cluster groups. (Particularly water bird habitat) It has also been pointed out that wetland is a precious resource for the economy, culture, science and travel. Once destroyed, it cannot be restored. Therefore, damage to wetland must be stopped to avoid further loss of wetland ecology. This convention prompts comprehensive national policy setup, wetland ecology study conduction, conservation plan setup, wetland ecology management, and coordination/collaboration among nations so that the rapidly disappearing wetland ecology can be saved.

6. The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
(Bonn Convention, The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals)

   Sustainable development refers to “economic growth related methods and activities adopted to prevent natural resources required for present and future developments from being worn-out.” In accordance with a report “Our Future” released in 1987 by” World Committee on Environment and Development”, “sustainable development” is defined as: “Developments that meet the needs of modern people without affecting the needs of future generations.” On the other hand, International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) published” Caring for the Earth” and defined “sustainable development” as: “Improve quality of life within capacity of the ecosystem.”

7.Taiwan Marine Conservation Act
   Due to the implementation of “Martial Law” in Taiwan in the past, coastal areas were mostly restricted areas. Few studies related to marine development had been conducted. It was not until 1987 after Martial Law was lifted did the Taiwanese people get the chance to know more about their surroundings and the resourceful ocean. Coastal and marine resource developments gradually developed. However, related laws and regulations were still inadequate, thus, negligence over ecological environments resulted to the disappearance of coastal ecosystems and the decline of marine resources. Fortunately, environmental awareness in Taiwan in recent years has prompted the government to either review or setup marine conservation related laws and regulations. Some of these laws and regulations are as follows:

(1) Law on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone of the Republic of China
   The promulgation of “Law on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone of the Republic of China” aims to maintain the sovereignty of the R.O.C. and contiguous zones. This act is supplemental to Marine Conservation Act. Seawaters from the coast line to 12 nautical miles away are territorial seas of Taiwan. Marine laws and regulations of Taiwan are applicable in this territory. Foreign vessels are permitted to pass through under the condition that no damages will be caused including acts that cause serious contamination, and catch activities. Foreign vessels must abide by regulations related to marine resource maintenance, integrity preservation of the environment, and reduction and control of possible environmental pollution.

(2) Law on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf of the Republic of China
   The promulgation of “Law on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf of the Republic of China” promulgated in 1998 aims to maintain and exercise rights of the R.O.C. on exclusive economic zones and continental shelf. This act is supplemental to Marine Conservation Act. Inside this sea territory, our country has sovereign right to “explore, develop, maintain, manage water territories covering the seabed, seabed, and bottom organisms or non-biological resources, marine environment protection, and marine science study jurisdiction etc.

(3) Basic Environment Law
  “Basic Environment Law” was promulgated in 2002. It aims to “enhance environmental quality, promote citizen health , welfare, and pursue sustainable developments in order to promote environmental protection. Basic Environment Law is oriented as the environmental penal code that serves as the foundation during environmental protection law-making. All environmental protection related issues should prioritize and abide by this act. Environmental priority related concepts and principles are legalized while elements such as public participation and contaminator fine imposition are incorporated. It is stressed in this context that economic, technological, and social developments should take environmental protection into consideration. However, for those who impose negative effects or jeopardize the environment, environmental protection should be set as priorities. All citizens in the nation, businesses, and governmental levels are obliged to protect the environment.

(4) Wildlife Conservation Act
   “Wildlife Conservation Act” was promulgated in June, 1989. It aims to maintain balance among wildlife conservation, biological versatility, and natural ecology. Other than protecting the endangered, rare, and other protected animal species, this act also offers protection to wildlife habitat including marine ecosystem, and river system. Capture, possession, sale, and export of protected animal species, and marine protected animal species including the Green Turtle, the Loggerhead Turtle, the Hawksbill Sea Turtle, the Coconut Crab, the Sea Otter, and all other whale and dolphin types are strictly prohibited. Wildlife Conservation Act is the most effective act adopted in conserving endangered species at present.

(5) Fisheries Act
   “Fisheries Act” was promulgated in 1929, and implemented in 1930. It aims to conserve, reasonably utilize sea resources, enhance fishery productivity, promote comprehensive fishery development, assist recreational fishery, maintain fishery order, and improve the standard of living for fishermen. Due to sea resource conservation and environmental protection requirements, Fisheries Act pose limitations on the number of vessels in operation, fishing gears, fishing methods, operation territory, and time etc. In conjunction with international fishery conventions, or collaboration terms and conditions with foreign fishery industries, our nation is supportive of global marine conservation so that sustainable utilization and development of fishery resources can be facilitated.

(6) National Park Act
   “National Park Act” was promulgated in 1972. It aims to protect national natural landscapes, wildlife, and historical sites. It also serves recreational purposes and serves as reference for study conduction. As specified in the article, the ecology that cradles biological societies and reproductive environments should be protected at all cost in order to provision ecological studies. No specimen collection, pesticide use, and artificial facility construction are permitted inside ecological sanctuaries. Kenting is the only national park with a marine ecological sanctuary in Taiwan. The sanctuary is especially maintained to sustain the marine biology and the reproductive environment. No diving, fish catching, or coral collection is allowed. Wastewater discharge along the coast and chemical use are also prohibited.

(7) Marine Pollution Control Act
    “Marine Pollution Control Act” was promulgated in 2000. It aims to control marine pollution, protect marine environments, maintain marine ecology , ensure citizen health, sustain, and utilize marine resources. This act is applicable for tidal booms, inner waters, territorial seas, contiguous zones, Exclusive Economic Zones and the Continental Shelf under the jurisdiction of the R.O.C. In accordance with a marine environment classification on respective marine control areas, marine environment quality standard, and seawater environment features, Marine Environment Control Standard is setup to monitor and prevent land contamination, waste pollution at sea, and vessel contamination to the ocean.

(8) Cultural Resources Preservation Act
  “Cultural Resources Preservation Act” was promulgated in 1982. It aims to preserve cultural resources, enhance spiritual life of citizens, and promote the Chinese culture. Cultural resources include natural cultural landscapes, i.e. human historical and cultural backgrounds, areas, environments, and rare plants and animals. They are classified as to feature into: ecological conservation zone, natural reserve, and are plant and animal species. Inside the ecological and natural reserve, destruction on the nature is strictly prohibited. No hunting, net fishing, picking, wood cutting, or other methods that destroy rare plants and animals is allowed. Ecological environments should be maintained as well.

(9) Environmental Impact Assessment Act
   “Environmental Impact Assessment Act” was promulgated in 1999. It aims to “prevent and minimize negative impacts of developmental acts on the environment in order to protect it.” When planning on developmental programs or governmental polices, Environmental Impact Assessment Committee should be first setup. Comprehensive investigation, prediction, analysis and assessment on development acts and possible impacts and ranges on the natural and social environments should be done in scientific and objective manners. Environmental disparities before and after plan execution should be first investigated. If a developmental act poses major negative impacts on the environment, plan execution should be postponed. Suitable corresponding strategies or replacement plans should be proposed within given dates.

(10) Commercial Port Law
   “Commercial port Law” was promulgated in 1979. It aims to supervise commercial port planning, construction, management, operation, and safety. Marine Conservation Act regulates commercial port environment maintenance, commercial port sinking, and material/ debris removed. For wastes containing toxic substances and wastewater discharges through drainages/ditches, other discharge facility discharges into the commercial port/neighboring waters/barriers, anti-contamination facilities should be setup at exits and entrances. Wastes collected should be removed. No catch of sea animals and plants, or other acts that contaminate the port is allowed. In addition, vessels are not permitted to discharge toxic substances, wastewater, waste oil, or garbage in the port area and in neighboring waters. In case of accidents, the captain should prevent oil and wastewater discharge as regulated to avoid sea coast and coastal area contamination.

(11) Water Pollution Control Act
    “Water Pollution Control Act” was promulgated in 1974. It aims to control water pollution, ensure water resource cleanliness, maintain the ecosystem, improve the environment and standard of living, and promote citizen health. Pollutant sources affecting The Taiwan Island include river contamination, port/bay vessel waste contamination, ocean discharge, and construction contamination on coastal seawaters. Therefore, Water Pollution Control Act regulates that in addition to promoting river restoration, attention should also be given to wastewater and sludge discharge into the ocean and rivers. They should be first processed before discharge in accordance with Water Discharge Standard of Water Pollution Control Act. Monitoring should be strengthened to maintain water cleanliness when discharged into the sea to avoid jeopardizing the marine ecology.

(12) Water Act
    “Water Act” was promulgated in 1942. It aims to supervise water administration, processing and water business operation. It states that: “Water is a national natural resource. Since water resources are public properties, water business operations should take water cleaning and maintenance into consideration. It regulates that wastewater of factories, cities, and mining areas should be processed before discharge. Water that poses negative impacts should not be discharged. In addition, water tunnel, tombolo, and lands should not be cultivated. Onshore wind and wave resistant grasses and trees should be planted inside the area. No arbitrary logging is allowed in both publicly and privately owned areas.

(13) Statute for the Development of Tourism
    “Statute for the Development of Tourism” aims to promote the tourism industry, the Chinese culture, and sustain special natural ecologies and landscape resources in Taiwan. Relations with other nations, citizen health, and hastened local economic prosperity are also enhanced. As defined in this statute, Natural and ecological landscape areas include: special natural landscapes that cannot be recreated and natural plant and animal ecologies under special protection. Ex wildlife sanctuary, sea resource reserve, natural reserve, and ecological sanctuary etc. These areas require special protection and professional tour guides. Other than offering tourists detailed site descriptions, destructive acts can also be reduced to maintain these special natural ecological resources.

(14) Coast Guard Act
   “Coast Guard Act” was promulgated in 2000. It mainly maintains the peace and order of Taiwan seawaters, coasts, ensure national security, and people rights. Coastal patrol agencies are in charge of marine conservation related matters such as: Marine related study development, sea disaster rescue, fishery control, fishery resource maintenance, marine environment protection and conservation. Coast Guard Administration is the only marine and coast management related law enacting agency in Taiwan at present. The execution coverage includes protection against animal smuggling, animal hunting, and major ocean oil contamination management works. In the future, ocean contaminant handling capabilities are expected to be strengthened in the effort to protect the ecological environment.

(15) Coastal Act (Draft)

   “Coastal Act” is the basis for coastal management. It aims to makeup for inadequacies and conflicts encountered in the present coastal management so that a coastal area management organization system can be established. It serves as guide for reasonable use and effective management of coastal development and protection in the coastal area. Coastal environment disaster prevention helps achieve national security. The Ministry of the Interior, Executive Yuan began drafting Coastal Act around the 90s hoping to integrate coast area matters with a well-suited laws and law systems. Consequently, sustainable coastal resource and environment use will be achieved. Focus is placed on assigning coastal administration agencies, setting up of marine sanctuaries, establishing basic data pool for the coastal area, engaging in marine studies, and adopting a development permit system etc.
(16) Marine Conservation Act of the U.S.A.
    As the saying goes: “Success can be duplicated”, after World War II, the U.S. acknowledged the importance of the ocean. Beginning the 1970s, it actively engaged in marine related studies including conservation act and marine act setup. Over the past 30 years, America continued to amend these laws and regulations despite the changing times. An exclusive agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA was setup to integrate national marine related matters. Over the decades, America has accumulated experiences in marine act drafting and execution. These experiences will serve as reference for Taiwan. In the following, coastal Zone Management Act, Endangered Species Act, and Marine Mammal Protection Act will be discussed.

(17) National Environmental Policy Act
   The purpose of “National Environment Policy Act” is to promote harmony between mankind and his environment. Also, damages to the environment and life can be prevented or reduced. Human health and welfare are in turn enhanced. This act discloses comprehensive understanding of the importance of the ecosystem and natural resources on public welfare and development. Each generation is obliged to protect the environment for the sake of future generations. Reasonable utilization of the environment should be allowed as long as sustainable developments of natural resources are maintained. Thus, it is recommended that Environmental Quality Committee be setup to conduct negotiations and discussions on planning and decision-making that might pose impacts on the human environment. Appropriate methods and procedures should be ascertained to avoid jeopardizing the environment.

(18) Coastal Zone Management Act
   “Coastal Zone Management Act” was promulgated in 1972. It aims to encourage state governments to appreciate the value of preservation, protection, development, reproduction, or enhance coastal natural resources including wetland, estuary, estuary, beach, lagoon, and coral reef ecology etc. One of the features of this act is that it is non-preemptive. However, if state governments are willing to participate, the U.S. Federal Government will grant financial support. Another special feature of this act is that in order to ensure consistency during coastal management plan conduction, once the state coastal management plan is passed; other departments including the coastal management plan of the federal government must conform to the state plan and must not conflict with it. This feature greatly strengthens coastal management integrity, and prevents unnecessary wastes of time and resources.

(19) Endangered Species Act
   “Endangered Species Act” was passed in 1973. It aims to conserve threatened and endangered species as well as their habitats. Fish and Wildlife Service in America has listed 632 endangered species and 190 threatened species. This act prohibits intrusion, injury, capture, collection, or hunting of these species. (TAKE for short) It also prohibits acts that damage their habitats. Moreover, it is also illegal to import and export these species. Marine species threatened or endangered include the Sea Turtle, the Blue Whale, large whales such as the Right Whale, the Humpback Whale, the Bottlenose Dolphin, the Harbor Dolphin, small mammals such as the Northern Sea lion, and Seal. In addition, the Pacific Cod, and the Coho Salmon etc. are also included.

(20) Marine Mammal Protection Act
    “Marine Mammal Protection Act” was promulgated in 1972. It mainly aims to conserve and manage marine mammals including whales, dolphins, and species under Order Cetacea. They are protected from intrusion, hunting and injury. This act serves as basis for the management system to reduce whale hunting, and promote scientific studies on wildlife. Basic requirements of marine mammal display are setup. Marine mammal and related product imports, exports s are also regulated. However, many people believe that this act favors marine mammals (species preference), which should not be the case. This act has been setup only to protect certain species. It raises queries as to why endangered species are not taken into consideration. America prohibits the import of fishes as it is in violation to this act. Marine Mammal Protection Act has caused controversies till the present day.

(21) Sustainable Fisheries Act
   In 1976, Magnuson Conservation and Management Act was officially amended in 1996 into “Sustainable Fisheries Act.” It aims to protect healthy shoals of fish, and maintain commercialized and recreational fishery sustainable developments. The conservation works are divided into 2 parts namely conservation and management, fishery monitor and study. Contents include protecting important habits of shoals of fish, terminating commercial fish hunting, reconstructing the weakening fishery due to excessive hunting, reducing non-commercial fish capture, and reorganizing fishery management. About 201 fish species are currently under the protection of this act. It involves management of highly migratory species, northern pacific and northwest fishery, and fishery management planning issues.

(22) Clean Water Act

    Since greater concerns have been drawn on water quality affecting public health, the U.S. government promulgated “Clean Water Act” in 1972. It aims to restore and maintain the water integrity in America in Chemical, physical, and biological aspects. In order to accomplish the goals, Clean Water Act strives to ensure healthy water environments and neighboring ecologies. At the same time, the public will be given good water quality in water-friendly environments. Clean Water Act has setup a wastewater discharge system, surface water quality standard, and many other regulations, and planning on water management. It serves as the milestone of water conservation works in America.

(23) Establish comprehensive sustainable development promotion organization and decision-making mechanism
  Through control on regional developments, indicator release and campaign, decision-making departments and the general public receive messages that convey ideas on which developments cannot be sustained and should be changed. Meanwhile, the promotion team is prompted to network expansion. This network then prompts the masses to cooperate and act as a whole so that this act can be deep-rooted in the society. Overall promotional organizations should be led by administrative departments, scholars, and experts. Other non-governmental organizations and groups are called upon at roundtable meetings. They will plan on actions taken to ensure sustainable developments. Also, respective administrative departments, companies and the public are requested to put their thoughts into action.

(24) Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act
  “Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act” was promulgated in 1972. It mainly manages ocean dumping acts and support related research programs. It also serves as reference for marine biological sanctuary designs and regulations. This Act is also called “Ocean Dumping Act.” In the context, an ocean dumping permit system is setup to strictly regulate ocean dumping site conditions in order to prevent human health deprivation and welfare degradation. Possibilities of the marine environment and ecology are also entertained. Marine biological sanctuary program values recreational, ecological and aesthetic utilization in important seawater environments.

Reference:  (Chinese)