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Mackerel

Australasicus
Japonicus
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Mackerel's Hometown Nan-Fang-Ao

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Mackerel Introduction
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     Mackerel is otherwise known as Scombridae, and Scomber.  Two species found in our country: Scomber australasicus and Scomber japonicus.

Scomber australasicus

Other name

S. tapeinocephalus

Life span

 6 years

Age to maturity

1 year old-partially grown

2 years old-fully grown

Diet

Crustaceans such as Japanese anchovy, Bay Prawn, and Mysis.

Spawn period and place

Spawn period: January-May
Spawn site: Waters nearby Peng Chia Yu and southern waters in the Southeastern Sea

Consumption nation

China, Taiwan, Japan,
Korea

Morphology

   Spindled-shaped, flat on lateral part; dorsal and ventral edge curvature; short caudal peduncle; 2 protruding spines on both parts of basal anal fin; fine teeth on upper and lower jaw; upper jaw teeth not conspicuous; dorsal part blue -green; ventral part silver-white; lateral dark spots or stripes present on lateral parts
   3 species fall under this genus, 2 of which are found in Taiwan. Scomber japonicus (S.japonicus) differs from this species in having fewer spines (It has only IX spines whereas Scomber australasicushas XI). The ventral part is white without markings.

Pelagic condition

     Scomber australasicus is widely distributed in the Eastern China seas, the Southern Sea of Japans, and the Southern Yokoso seas. As far south as the outer seas of Hualien, Taiwan, mature Scomber australasicus spawn along outer seas of Yilan, Peng Chia Yu waters, Fishing islands, and outer seas of Jiang-Zhe. The young is distributed in the southern part of the Eastern Sea. In the summer, they migrate to the northern part of the Eastern Sea, Japan, and southern coast, and the Sea of Japan in search of food. In the winter, they swim back to the southern part of the Eastern Sea (Northern seawaters of Taiwan) to survive over the winter.

Fishery features

    Mackerel yields in Taiwan are mainly consisted of this species group. The 8 sets of large encircling nets (Purse seines) and knotless fishing nets in Su-Ao area yields approx.60, 000 tons of fish every year. The yield of fishery in Korea is approx.200, 000 tons per year. The yield in China is estimated to be between 350,000-400,000 tons. (Korea, China, and Japan mainly yield Scomber japonicus). This species group is generally caught by encircling nets (purse seines) in Japan east to the China Sea, south to the sea of Japan and South to Yokoso. Restrictions on purse seine vessel number were imposed in the past as a control measure. Since the 1970s, the yield in Japan was approx. 40,000-80,000 tons. In 1999, a maximum yield of 88,000 tons was recorded. Beginning 1997, Japan adopted TAC (Total Allowable Catch). The TAC of Scomber australasicus and Scomber japonicus is 512,000 tons.

Distribution

    Distributed mainly in the West Pacific Ocean, New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, China, Japan, and Hawaii; also found in all various areas in our country.

Habitat

    Inshore mesopelagic and epipelagic fish. Staple food: pelagic crustaceans and small fish species.

Fishery and consumption

   Important food source; captured with regular purse seine, gill net, or set net; best fried or placed in Miso soup; may be also be processed into salted food or can food.

Scomber japonicus

Life span

6 years (Japan)
8
years (China)

Diet

Crustaceans such as Bay Prawn, and Mysis as well as Copepodas such as and other small fish species.

Age to
maturity

1 year old-Partially grown
2 years old-fully grown
 

Consumption
nation

China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea

Spawn period
and place

Spawn period: Spring
Abundant production: March-May
Spawn site: coast of China in the southern part of the Eastern Sea; the coast of the Korean Peninsula, the coast of Yokoso, Japan. (Korea and Japan both proclaim this fish species spawn in their coastal seawaters)

Morphology

    Streamline or spindle-shaped; sometimes extended with flat lateral parts; thin and powerful caudal peduncle; protruded ridges on lateral parts, crescent caudal fin; dorsal fin taken in under ridge for fast swimming; large mouth fissure; pointed snout not as protrusive as sword-shaped snout; fatty deposit around eye and facial region; circular scales or incomplete cetenoid scales; wavy lateral line; two dorsal fins; first dorsal fin process; concave second dorsal fin and anal fin; scales in pectoral fin region may develop into plastron; especially well-developed in Bonito fish, and tuna.

Pelagic
condition

    The Scomber japonicus that spawn in the Yellow Sea lay eggs in July. From July to September, they are scattered in the deep-sea s of southern part of Oceanic Island, and the southeastern part of Stone Island in search of bait. After September, the water temperature drops, and they swim along the downstream course to the south to survive over the winter. The young is distributed in Chou-Shan of China, Fishing ground of Long River Mouth, and Central and Northern Part of Yellow River. By October, they migrate toward the deep seas. Adult fish and young fish tend to have different downstream courses to over-winter site. Adult fish survive over the winter in the narrow and long arc-shaped deep-water area connected by the Western part of Wu Dao, and the Central part of the Eastern Sea. The young concentrate in seawaters of Je-Ju island, and adjacent areas, Most young fish linger in western parts of Heuksando and Je-Ju in search of bait. After November, they return to over-winter site. In addition, Scomber australasicus and Scomber japonicus that survives over the winter in the southern par of the Taiwan Strait head north along the downstream course between March-April. By April and May, they spawn along the inshore areas of Northern part of Fujian, and Southern part of Zhe Jiang. Studies are yet to be conducted to determine whether it is an independent species group. The Mitochondrion DNA oligonucleotide sequence of this species group is identical with the species group found in Fishing Island waters. (i.e. Eastern China Sea species group)

Fishery
feature

    270,000-300,000 of this species group were captured in the latter part of the 1970s in Japan. In 1990, and 1992, the yields were 130,000 and 150,000 tons. By 1996, this number increased to 400,000. In 1997, the yield was 210,000 and it continued to drop each year. China had the largest catch of this species group. A total of 350,000 tons of Scomber australasicus and Scomber japonicus were caught. In 2001, Korea caught a total of 200,000 tons. Japan only caught 74,000 tons of Scomber japonicus in 2001. After TAC was adopted in 1997, Japan yield of this species group in Japan was estimated to be between 800,000 and 1,000,000 tons.

Distribution

    Distributed mainly in the West Pacific Ocean, New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, China, Japan, and Hawaii; also found in all various areas in our country.

Habitat

    Inshore mesopelagic and epipelagic fish. Staple food: pelagic crustaceans and small fish species.

Fishery and
consumption

    Important food source; captured with regular purse seine, gill net, or set net; best fried or placed in Miso soup; may be also be processed into salted food or can food.


Mackerel Recipe

BBQ Lemon Mackerel

Ingredient & condiment

Nutrient analysis

Nutrient focus

Mackerel-100g

Calory - 417calories

¡ÎHigh DHA

Lemon - half

Protein - 14.4g

¡ÎProtein

Salt - moderate

Fat - 39.4g

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Pepper-moderate

Carbohydrate-0.2g

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Method

(1)Slice cross-wise on Mackerel surface, sprinkle pepper and salt.
(2)Lemon slices are placed on top of Mackerel and barbequed under low heat.

Tip

Mackerel has high DHA content. Lemon can be added on it and barbequed to eliminate fish foul.

Recipe source: http://www.socialwork.com.hk/food/seafood/sf1/green04.htm (Chinese)


Miso BBQ Mackerel

Ingredient & condiment

3 Mackerel pieces

Water - 1TSP

MSG - 1TSP

Soy sauce - 1TSP

Refined sugar - 1TSP

Balsam - 1TSP

Rice wine- 1/3TSP

Grated garlic - 1/3TSP

Ginger juice - 2TSP

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Method

(1) Prepare (mix) all ingredients except Mackerel.

(2) Coat oil on the grill and place Mackerel on top or insert a bamboo stick in the fish and place it on top of a foiled baking tray. The tray should be deep to suspend the fish and make sure it does not contact the watery bottom. There is no need to wash the baking tray afterwards. 

(3) Bake in preheat oven at 180C. Remove and coat Miso sauce on top. Repeat coating and flip over to bake. Bake for 10-15 minutes. If the oven has grill function, switch to grill and bake till fish is golden in color.

Description

Recipe source: Miso Salmon Sauce on the website of Cooking School.
http://www.socialwork.com.hk/food/seafood/sf1/green03.htm (Chinese)


Tomato sauced Mackerel

Ingredient & condiment

2 Mackerels,

little tomato sauce, soy sauce, lard, vinegar, sugar, wine

Method

Place cleaned, sectioned fish in the pan. Add all other ingredients and cook for 1 hour. Cut fish into smaller sections and cook for another 5 minutes. The nutritious and delicious tomato sauced Mackerel is ready to serve. ¡@


Mackerel Sashimi

Ingredient & condiment

1 Mackerels,  little ginger juice &  shredded radish

Method

Remove skin and bone from Mackerel, section, and place on top of shredded radish.

Recipe source: http://www.ilan-travel.com.tw/ilan-travel/subject/mackerel/page7.htm

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